Here are 13 of the healthiest green vegetables to include in your diet.
For example, one cup (67 grams) of raw kale packs 684% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin K, 206% of the DV for vitamin A and 134% of the DV for vitamin C (2).
It also contains antioxidants such as lutein and beta-carotene, which reduce the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress (3Trusted Source).
To benefit most from all that kale has to offer, it’s best consumed raw since cooking can reduce its nutrient profile (4Trusted Source).
SUMMARYKale is rich in minerals, antioxidants and vitamins, particularly vitamins A, C and K. To reap the most benefits, it’s best eaten raw, as cooking reduces the nutritional profile of the vegetable.
Since the 1980s, they have often been used as a garnish or decoration, but they have many more uses.
Despite their small size, they’re full of color, flavor and nutrients. In fact, one study found that microgreens contain up to 40 times more nutrients compared to their mature counterparts. Some of these nutrients include vitamins C, E and K (5Trusted Source).
Microgreens can be grown in the comfort of your own home all year round, making them easily available.
SUMMARYMicrogreens are immature greens, which have been popular since the 1980s. They’re flavorful and packed with nutrients like vitamins C, E and K. What’s more, they can be grown all year.
They’re similar in texture to kale and cabbage. In fact, their name comes from the word “colewort.”
Collard greens are a good source of calcium and the vitamins A, B9 (folate) and C. They’re also one of the best sources of vitamin K when it comes to leafy greens. In fact, one cup (190 grams) of cooked collard greens packs 1,045% of the DV for vitamin K (6).
Vitamin K is known for its role in blood clotting. In addition, more research is being done regarding its ability to improve bone health (7Trusted Source).
One study in 72,327 women aged 38–63 found that those with vitamin K intakes below 109 mcg per day had a significantly increased risk of hip fractures, suggesting a link between this vitamin and bone health (8Trusted Source).
SUMMARYCollard greens have thick leaves and are bitter in taste. They’re one of the best sources of vitamin K, may reduce blood clots and promote healthy bones.
Its nutrient profile is impressive with one cup (30 grams) of raw spinach providing 181% of the DV for vitamin K, 56% of the DV for vitamin A and 13% of the DV for manganese (9).
It’s also packed with folate, which plays a key role in red blood cell production and the prevention of neural tube defects in pregnancy (10Trusted Source).
One study on the neural tube defect spina bifida found that one of the most preventable risk factors for this condition was a low intake of folate during the first trimester of pregnancy (11Trusted Source).
Along with taking a prenatal vitamin, eating spinach is a great way to increase your folate intake during pregnancy.
SUMMARYSpinach is a popular leafy green vegetable that can be used in a variety of ways. It’s a great source of folate, which may prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, during pregnancy.
It belongs to the Brassica family, along with Brussels sprouts, kale and broccoli (12Trusted Source).
Vegetables in this plant family contain glucosinolates, which give them a bitter flavor.
Animal studies have found that foods that contain these plant compounds may have cancer-protective properties, especially against lung and esophageal cancer (13Trusted Source, 14Trusted Source).
Another benefit of cabbage is that it can be fermented and turned into sauerkraut, which provides numerous health benefits, such as improving your digestion and supporting your immune system. It may even aid weight loss (15Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source, 18Trusted Source).
SUMMARYCabbage has thick leaves and comes in various colors. It has cancer-protective properties and can be turned into sauerkraut, which offers additional health benefits.
Indeed, they have an impressive nutrient profile, but while beets are commonly used in dishes, the leaves are often ignored.
This is unfortunate, considering that they’re edible and rich in potassium, calcium, riboflavin, fiber and vitamins A and K. Just one cup (144 grams) of cooked beet greens contains 220% of the DV for vitamin A, 37% of the DV for potassium and 17% of the DV for fiber (19).
They also contain the antioxidants beta-carotene and lutein, which may reduce the risk of eye disorders, such as macular degeneration and cataracts (20Trusted Source, 21Trusted Source).
Beet greens can be added to salads, soups or sauteed and eaten as a side dish.
SUMMARYBeet greens are edible green leaves found on the tip of beets. They’re full of nutrients, including antioxidants that may support eye health.
It’s said to have healing properties and has been used in herbal medicine for centuries. However, no human studies have confirmed these benefits so far.
Test-tube studies have found watercress extract to be beneficial in targeting cancer stem cells and impairing cancer cell reproduction and invasion (22Trusted Source, 23Trusted Source).
Due to its bitter and slightly spicy flavor, watercress makes a great addition to neutrally flavored foods.
SUMMARYWatercress has been used in herbal medicine for centuries. A few test-tube studies suggest it may be beneficial in cancer treatment, but no human studies have confirmed these effects.
It has a crunchy texture and is a popular lettuce, particularly in Caesar salads.
It’s a good source of vitamins A and K, with one cup (47 grams) providing 82% and 60% of the DVs for these vitamins respectively (24).
What’s more, research in rats showed that lettuce improved their levels of blood lipids, potentially reducing the risk of heart disease. Further studies need to investigate these benefits in people (25Trusted Source).
SUMMARYRomaine lettuce is a popular lettuce found in many salads. It’s rich in vitamins A and K, and a study in rats suggests it may improve blood lipid levels.
It has an earthy taste and is rich in minerals and vitamins, such as potassium, manganese and the vitamins A, C and K (26).
Swiss chard also contains a unique flavonoid called syringic acid — a compound that may be beneficial for lowering blood sugar levels (27).
In two small studies in rats with diabetes, oral administration of syringic acid for 30 days improved blood sugar levels (28, 29).
However, it’s important to note that these were minor animal studies and that human research supporting the claim that syringic acid may aid blood sugar control is lacking.
While many people typically throw away the stems of the Swiss chard plant, they’re crunchy and highly nutritious.
Next time, try adding all parts of the Swiss chard plant to dishes such as soups, tacos or casseroles.
SUMMARYSwiss chard is rich in color and often incorporated into Mediterranean cooking. It contains the flavonoid syringic acid, which may be beneficial for reducing blood sugar levels. However, human-based research on its effectiveness is lacking.
It has a slightly peppery taste and small leaves that can easily be incorporated into salads or used as a garnish. It can also be used cosmetically and medicinally (30Trusted Source).
Like other leafy greens, it’s packed with nutrients such as pro-vitamin A carotenoids and vitamins B9 and K (31).
It’s also one of the best sources of dietary nitrates, a compound that turns into nitric oxide in your body.
Though the benefits of nitrates are debated, some studies have found that they may help increase blood flow and reduce blood pressure by widening your blood vessels (32Trusted Source).
SUMMARYArugula is a leafy green vegetable that goes by several different names, including rocket and rucola. It’s rich in vitamins and naturally occurring nitrates, which may help reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow.
It’s curly, crisp in texture and has a nutty and mildly bitter flavor. It can be eaten raw or cooked.
Just one-half cup (25 grams) of raw endive leaves packs 72% of the DV for vitamin K, 11% of the DV for vitamin A and 9% of the DV for folate (33).
It’s also a source of kaempferol, an antioxidant that has been shown to reduce inflammation and inhibit the growth of cancer cells in test-tube studies (34Trusted Source, 35Trusted Source).
SUMMARYEndive is a lesser-known leafy green vegetable that is curly and crisp in texture. It contains several nutrients, including the antioxidant kaempferol, which may reduce cancer cell growth.
It has thick, dark-green leaves that make a great addition to soups and stir-fries.
Bok choy contains the mineral selenium, which plays an important role in cognitive function, immunity and cancer prevention (36Trusted Source).
In addition, selenium is important for proper thyroid gland function. This gland is located in your neck and releases hormones that play a key role in metabolism (37Trusted Source).
An observational study associated low levels of selenium with thyroid conditions such as hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis and enlarged thyroid (38Trusted Source).
SUMMARYBok choy is popular in China and often used in soups and stir-fries. It contains the mineral selenium, which benefits your brain health, immunity, cancer protection and thyroid health.
These greens pack more nutrients than the turnip itself, including calcium, manganese, folate and the vitamins A, C and K (39).
They have a strong and spicy flavor and are often enjoyed cooked rather than raw.
Turnip greens are considered a cruciferous vegetable, which have been shown to decrease your risk of health conditions, such as heart disease, cancer and inflammation (40Trusted Source, 41Trusted Source, 42Trusted Source).
Turnip greens also contain several antioxidants including gluconasturtiin, glucotropaeolin, quercetin, myricetin and beta-carotene — which all play a role in reducing stress in your body (43Trusted Source).
Turnip greens can be used as a replacement for kale or spinach in most recipes.
SUMMARYTurnip greens are the leaves of the turnip plant and are considered a cruciferous vegetable. Studies have found that they may decrease stress in your body and reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer and inflammation.
Fortunately, many leafy greens can be found year round, and they can easily be incorporated into your meals — in surprising and diverse ways.
To reap the many impressive health benefits of leafy greens, make sure to include a variety of these vegetables in your diet.